Medieval Rings

les Enluminures
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WITNESS TO OVER 3,000 YEARS OF HISTORY, THIS TIMELESS RING PRESERVES THE CRAFTSMANSHIP OF CYPRIOT GOLDSMITHS

Cyprus, 1450-1200 BC

Gold

  • 33.900 €
  • £30,300
  • $40,000
  • WITNESS TO OVER 3,000 YEARS OF HISTORY, THIS TIMELESS RING PRESERVES THE CRAFTSMANSHIP OF CYPRIOT GOLDSMITHS

    Cyprus, 1450-1200 BC
    Gold
    Weight: 14.8 gr; circumference: 68.5 mm; size: US 12½, UK Y½

    Enkomi, on the island of Cyprus, was a wealthy trading and copper center during the Late Bronze Age. In the late nineteenth century, the British Museum (with a bequest from Emma Turner) began excavations at the site and unearthed thousands of objects from ordinary vessels to high quality gold jewelry.  Several rings very much like the present were also uncovered, all displaying fine gold work and a consistent style.

    Description
    Broad, flat band of nine individual wires total soldered together. The three center wires are twisted; the six outer (on either side) are plain. The ends of the hoop were hammered flat and soldered to the bottom of the circular bezel. The bezel is raised in a cake-like form with a beaded base and top consisting of concentric circles: scalloped, woven, and beaded. At the center is a hollow, raised disc (now dented). The ring is in remarkably excellent condition for its age.

    Literature
    The alternating plain wire, bead, and braid work on the present ring is a fine example of Cypriot jewelry of this period. Two very similar rings, now in the British Museum, display this same type of workmanship, although their center cloison appear to have once enclosed gems, stone or glass: nos. 1897,0401.542.+ and 1897,0401.93 (see online).  On Enkomi goldsmith work, see Crewe et al 2009; and Goring 1983 (unpublished dissertation). For the excavations see Murray et al 1900. See Marshall 1908, ring 685. The Cyprus Museum website for the Enkomi tombs is also a good resource: http://www.enkomicm.org/jewellery.

    Reference number: 147

  • Bezel

    The upper, protruding part of a finger ring (excluding the hoop and the shoulders) often set with a gemstone.

  • Ancient

    The term “ancient” can include everything from Egypt to Etruscan and Phoenician to Greece, literally thousands of years of history. Here we are concerned primarily with Hellenistic and Imperial Rome. The Hellenistic age extends from c. 325 B.C. until the inauguration of the Roman Empire in 27 B.C.; and Imperial Rome thereafter until the reign of Constantine from c. 306-327 and the Sack of Rome in 410 by the Visigoths led by Alaric.

    Both gold (from extensive new mining operations) and precious stones (from new trade routes) were plentiful during the Hellenist Age, and jewelry was highly prized as conveying social status. Multicolored gemstones were in frequent use, chalcedonies, cornelians, and above all garnets (from India). Seed pearls, emeralds, and amethysts also are found by the first and second centuries B.C. While Hellenistic jewelry much imitated Greek prototypes, some forms originate during this era, and they include the Heracles knot that remained popular through Roman times and the hinged ring.

    At first, Roman rings of the Imperial period were relatively simple, but by the first century the taste for luxury and displays of wealth was much noted by Roman writers. Martial and other critics of Roman society parodied the newly rich (see Spier 2012, p. 12). One of his epigrams ridicules the dandy Charinus, who wears six rings on each finger and never takes them off because he does not have a gem case (implying that he does not own them they are rented). In Petronius’s Satyricon, Fortunata the wife of a former slave is mocked for wearing at least “six and half pounds on her” during a banquet. These accounts speak to the wide availability of jewelry during this era. Among the new forms, the new pierced openwork in gold (opus interrasile) is worth noting. By the later Roman Empire, especially the third through fifth centuries, Roman jewelry becomes more sophisticated: among the forms that date from this time are double- and triple- bezel rings, as well as the pyramid setting.

    A certain amount of information survives concerning the making of jewelry in antiquity. Jewelry is almost always described by weight and if there are stones the weight without the stones is given. These weights are closely related to those of coinage, so customers may have supplied coins to itinerant or shop-based craftsmen. There were certainly guilds in Roman times. We also suspect that children worked as jewelers and engravers; there is a tombstone of a 19 year old gem engraver known. Archeological finds reveal that shops surrounding the marketplace belonged to retail traders dealing with the local market; there are transfer and rental agreements for jewelry shows (see Ogden 1982, p. 177). The shop of one jeweler was only 5 feet by 4 feet in size, much like artisan’s workshops throughout the medieval era. Certainly itinerant goldsmiths must also have existed.

WITNESS TO OVER 3,000 YEARS OF HISTORY, THIS TIMELESS RING PRESERVES THE CRAFTSMANSHIP OF CYPRIOT GOLDSMITHS

Cyprus, 1450-1200 BC
Gold
Weight: 14.8 gr; circumference: 68.5 mm; size: US 12½, UK Y½

Enkomi, on the island of Cyprus, was a wealthy trading and copper center during the Late Bronze Age. In the late nineteenth century, the British Museum (with a bequest from Emma Turner) began excavations at the site and unearthed thousands of objects from ordinary vessels to high quality gold jewelry.  Several rings very much like the present were also uncovered, all displaying fine gold work and a consistent style.

Description
Broad, flat band of nine individual wires total soldered together. The three center wires are twisted; the six outer (on either side) are plain. The ends of the hoop were hammered flat and soldered to the bottom of the circular bezel. The bezel is raised in a cake-like form with a beaded base and top consisting of concentric circles: scalloped, woven, and beaded. At the center is a hollow, raised disc (now dented). The ring is in remarkably excellent condition for its age.

Literature
The alternating plain wire, bead, and braid work on the present ring is a fine example of Cypriot jewelry of this period. Two very similar rings, now in the British Museum, display this same type of workmanship, although their center cloison appear to have once enclosed gems, stone or glass: nos. 1897,0401.542.+ and 1897,0401.93 (see online).  On Enkomi goldsmith work, see Crewe et al 2009; and Goring 1983 (unpublished dissertation). For the excavations see Murray et al 1900. See Marshall 1908, ring 685. The Cyprus Museum website for the Enkomi tombs is also a good resource: http://www.enkomicm.org/jewellery.

Reference number: 147

Bezel

The upper, protruding part of a finger ring (excluding the hoop and the shoulders) often set with a gemstone.

Ancient

The term “ancient” can include everything from Egypt to Etruscan and Phoenician to Greece, literally thousands of years of history. Here we are concerned primarily with Hellenistic and Imperial Rome. The Hellenistic age extends from c. 325 B.C. until the inauguration of the Roman Empire in 27 B.C.; and Imperial Rome thereafter until the reign of Constantine from c. 306-327 and the Sack of Rome in 410 by the Visigoths led by Alaric.

Both gold (from extensive new mining operations) and precious stones (from new trade routes) were plentiful during the Hellenist Age, and jewelry was highly prized as conveying social status. Multicolored gemstones were in frequent use, chalcedonies, cornelians, and above all garnets (from India). Seed pearls, emeralds, and amethysts also are found by the first and second centuries B.C. While Hellenistic jewelry much imitated Greek prototypes, some forms originate during this era, and they include the Heracles knot that remained popular through Roman times and the hinged ring.

At first, Roman rings of the Imperial period were relatively simple, but by the first century the taste for luxury and displays of wealth was much noted by Roman writers. Martial and other critics of Roman society parodied the newly rich (see Spier 2012, p. 12). One of his epigrams ridicules the dandy Charinus, who wears six rings on each finger and never takes them off because he does not have a gem case (implying that he does not own them they are rented). In Petronius’s Satyricon, Fortunata the wife of a former slave is mocked for wearing at least “six and half pounds on her” during a banquet. These accounts speak to the wide availability of jewelry during this era. Among the new forms, the new pierced openwork in gold (opus interrasile) is worth noting. By the later Roman Empire, especially the third through fifth centuries, Roman jewelry becomes more sophisticated: among the forms that date from this time are double- and triple- bezel rings, as well as the pyramid setting.

A certain amount of information survives concerning the making of jewelry in antiquity. Jewelry is almost always described by weight and if there are stones the weight without the stones is given. These weights are closely related to those of coinage, so customers may have supplied coins to itinerant or shop-based craftsmen. There were certainly guilds in Roman times. We also suspect that children worked as jewelers and engravers; there is a tombstone of a 19 year old gem engraver known. Archeological finds reveal that shops surrounding the marketplace belonged to retail traders dealing with the local market; there are transfer and rental agreements for jewelry shows (see Ogden 1982, p. 177). The shop of one jeweler was only 5 feet by 4 feet in size, much like artisan’s workshops throughout the medieval era. Certainly itinerant goldsmiths must also have existed.

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